colour management book

Colour Management for photographers made easy

This eBook makes colour photography simple, reliable and stress free.

phase one

“There is a great deal of confusion about colour management among photographers, so I am really pleased to see Colour Management Pro break it down to a concise, useful and readable format that is easily understood.”

David Grover, Phase One


“The Colour Management Pro Guide is a great resource to learn how to consistently achieve the best possible color from all your devices. This easy to understand guide is essential for any photographer who is a color perfectionist.”

Liz Quinlisk, Global Photo & Video Marketing Director, X-Rite

Perfect Colour Every Time

colour management workflow

Take Back Control

The first step in any colour photography workflow is to shoot images that are correctly exposed and White Balanced, because this can save hours in post production, while delivering huge benefits in image quality.

Imagine what it would be like if you knew exactly how your images would appear because you had a fully colour managed workflow.

display calibration

Display Calibration

Display calibration should be at the centre of your colour workflow, so we show you how to obtain optimal results on your computer and tablet devices.

Your colour images will never be accurate or consistent until your display is calibrated and profiled according to industry standards. Luckily this is easy to achieve with the right knowledge and doesn’t have to cost a fortune.

color managed environment

Working Environment

Discover how to set up a correct working environment, either at home or in the studio with practical solutions to ensure your colour perception is not influenced by your work area.

From choice of room lighting to wall colour and the desk area; there are simple steps that can drastically improve the speed & accuracy of colour editing.

color managed photography

Practical Advice

Filled with information based on real world experience, so you can prepare your images for the web, photo labs, inkjet printing or even dealing with prepress printers on the other side of the world. All of this can be done reliably and consistently because good colour management makes it possible.

Colour Settings & information for Mac and Windows



photoshop elements






capture one pro

Capture One Pro

And so much more…

This PDF eBook is available for immediate download and formatted for easy viewing on computer or tablet devices with links to websites plus extra content. As an added bonus it comes with 1080 HD video tutorials.

Join the thousands of photographers, designers and others who are already benefitting from this information, because effective colour management is the single best investment you can make in photography.

Sample Chapter Content

Summary of contents

Summary of contents (620 pages - 52 chapters)

N.B X-Rite equipment such as calibrators etc was recently rebranded as Calibrite, however the products remain the same.

1 - Colour Management Introduction

  • Overview

  • Saving money

  • Saving time

  • Colour management and consistency

  • Summary

2 - Managing With Colour Blindness

  • Statistics

  • Age effects

  • Tritanopia

  • Deuteranopia

  • Protanopia

  • Cone monochromacy

  • Achromatopsia

  • Red X-Chrome contact lenses

  • Preventative steps

  • Testing your colour vision online

  • Munsell FM100

  • Eizo Color Universal Design

  • Simulating colour blindness in Photoshop

  • Colour blindness in art

  • Summary

3 - The First Steps Towards Colour Excellence

  • Introduction

  • Lighting

  • Lenses

  • Camera calibration

  • Zooms vs Primes

  • Lens hoods

4 - Exposure

  • Dynamic range

  • LCD histograms

  • Exposing to the right

  • Handheld meters

  • Sekonic L-308S

  • Sekonic L-758D

  • Sekonic L-478 LiteMaster Pro

  • 18% Grey card

  • Testing the limits

5 - Raw vs Jpeg

  • The limitations of Jpeg

  • Why you should shoot Raw

  • Future proofing your images

  • DNG vs Proprietary Raw

6 - Setting the White Balance

  • Neutral vs Warm

  • Colour temperature scale

  • Colour temperature Raw file adjustments

  • Daylight colour temperature

  • Understanding different colour temperature scenarios

  • Auto vs Custom White Balance

  • White Balance presets

  • The importance of accurate White Balance when shooting Jpeg

  • The advantages of shooting a custom White Balance

  • The importance of correct exposure for accurate White Balance

  • The value of using a high quality grey card

  • The ExpoDisc 2.0

7 - Colour Meters

  • Why a colour meter is helpful

  • Modern vs Old colour meters

  • Sekonic C-700R

  • Different spectrum curves in lighting types

  • Colour meters for landscapes

  • Using colour meters for precise control and understanding of the scene

8 - X-Rite ColorChecker Passport

  • White Balance target

  • Correcting the White Balance of Raw files in post production with a grey card

  • The importance of an accurate White Balance when shooting Jpeg

  • The Classic target

  • Custom vs Generic camera profiles

  • Matching colours with different camera types

  • Creating camera profiles for different scenarios

  • The Creative Enhancement target

  • Practical uses of the Creative Enhancement target

9 - Summary Of First Steps

  • Retouching anecdote

  • Lost skills

  • The camera is not important

  • Keep it simple

10 - Apple Vs Windows For Colour Management

  • Some history

  • A modern comparison

11 - Setting Up The Working Environment

  • How our environment affects our colour perception

  • Munsell N8

  • Ambient considerations

  • The desktop area

  • Room lighting

  • The computer desktop background

  • Monitor hoods

  • Proof lighting

12 - Choosing The Right Monitor

  • Monitor uniformity test

  • Verifying the display gamut against your image

  • Effective life expectancy of a new display

  • The best manufacturers

  • Different display technologies (IPS, TN Film, MVA and PVA)

  • Minimum sizes and resolution requirements

  • Contrast ratios

  • Matte vs Glossy displays

  • Understanding bit depth on displays

  • Standard Vs Wide Gamut displays

  • NEC MultiSync P232W

  • NEC SpectraView Reference 242

  • SpectraView II calibration software

  • BenQ SW2700PT

  • Laptop monitors

13 - Dual Monitors

  • Size considerations

  • Colour variation

  • Video card considerations

14 - Monitor Maintenance

  • How proper maintenance can affect the life expectancy of your display

  • The effects of heat

  • Controlling humidity

  • Dust is your enemy

  • Hard objects damaging the screen

  • Avoiding shocks and vibration

  • Electromagnetic interference

  • Excessive usage and the screensavers

  • Establishing a stable power supply

  • Cleaning the monitor

15 - Colour Models

  • RGB

  • CMYK

  • Lab

16 - Colour Spaces

  • Reasons for applying a colour space

  • Identifying a colour space

  • Raw files and exporting to a colour space

  • sRGB

  • Why sRGB became so popular

  • The limitations of sRGB

  • Situations where sRGB is the best option

  • Adobe RGB 1998

  • The benefits of Adobe RGB

  • When you should avoid Adobe RGB

  • Coverage of Adobe RGB with a professional wide gamut display

  • ColorMatch RGB

  • Why ColorMatch RGB was created

  • Modern use of ColorMatch RGB

  • ISO TC130 committee colour space recommendation

  • Pro Photo RGB

  • The benefits of Pro Photo RGB

  • The problems with Pro Photo RGB

  • 8-bit vs 16-bit files in Pro Photo RGB

  • Practical considerations with Pro Photo RGB

  • A practical comparison in print between sRGB, Adobe RGB and Pro Photo RGB

17 - Converting Colour Spaces

  • Reasons for converting a colour space

  • Choosing a Rendering Intent when converting a colour space

  • Previewing changes when converting a colour space

  • Assigning a colour profile

18 - Calibration & Profiling

  • Calibration & profiling to achieve accurate colour all over the world

  • The difference between calibration and profiling

  • ICC profiles

19 - Camera Calibration

  • Basic camera calibration

  • Controlling colours with Jpegs

  • Humphrey Bogart would have chosen Raw

  • Generic camera profiles

  • Restoring correct relative colour values with a custom camera profile

  • Consistent colour between different cameras

  • The 3 step process of custom camera calibration

  • Creating camera profiles for different light sources

  • Additional points to consider with custom camera calibration

  • Photographing the ColorChecker target

  • Camera profiling using Adobe DNG profile editor

  • Camera profiling using X-Rite’s ColorChecker Passport software

  • Basic rules for creating excellent camera profiles

  • Further refinements using the creative enhancement targets

20 - Monitor Calibration & Profiling

  • The importance of hardware calibration for your display

  • An explanation of the benefits from display calibration

  • Selecting the active monitor profile in OS X and Windows

  • Differences between a display and a printed image

  • The perception of colour accuracy

  • A few pearls of wisdom for best results

  • How often should you calibrate your display

  • Humidity with older calibrators

  • Avoiding calibration software conflicts

  • The correct settings

  • The display White Point

  • The correct gamma setting

  • Luminance settings

  • ICC version

  • Contrast

21 - The Calibration Process

  • Points to check before you start

  • Attaching the calibrator to the display

  • Regulating the calibrator

  • Basic vs Advanced calibration modes

  • ADC and DDC automated adjustments

  • Advanced options

  • Reviewing the results

  • Saving the display profile

22 - Monitor Calibration Test

  • Checking your monitor for defects

  • Identifying banding issues

  • A quick fix for image file banding in tonal transitions

  • Checking for colour bias and variation across the display

  • A practical summary

23 - Display Calibration For Video

  • PAL

  • NTSC


  • REC 709

  • Calibrating the display for video using i1Profiler

24 - Tablet And Mobile Device Calibration

  • Introducing ColorTRUE

  • ColorTRUE availability

  • Connecting the calibrator to your tablet or smartphone

  • Calibrators: ColorMunki Smile, ColorMunki Display, i1Display Pro, i1Photo Pro 2

  • The calibration process

  • Viewing images with calibration enabled

  • Setting the White Point for the tablet or smartphone display

  • Setting ambient light compensation

  • Soft proofing CMYK on a mobile device

25 - Printer Profiling

  • A basic explanation of printer profiling

  • Typical lifespan of a printer profile

  • The three types of printer profile

  • Matching profiles to print conditions

  • Checking your printer before making a printer profile

  • Downloadable printer test sample

  • The perils of double profiling in Windows

  • Judging a good printer profile

  • Troubleshooting printer profiles

  • Viewing conditions to assess printer profiles

  • Printer profiles supplied by the manufacturer

  • Custom profiles through 3rd party suppliers

  • Preparing test prints for remote profiling

26 - Making Your Own Custom Printer Profiles

  • It’s no longer complicated creating your own printer profiles

  • Allowing time for the test chart to dry properly before profiling

  • Using the ColorMunki Photo wizard to create a printer profile

  • Advanced profiling options on the i1Publish Pro 2

  • Profile naming

27 - Scanner Calibration & Profiling

  • Self-calibrating scanners

  • Typical colour bias in films

  • The first step in scanner profiling

  • Using the ColorChecker Digital SG with i1Profiler

  • Verifying the scanner profile in Photoshop

  • Scanner profiling service

  • The problem of scanner profiling with colour negatives

  • VueScan Professional

  • Coloraid IT8 calibration targets

  • Fine tuning your scanner profile

  • Verifying the scanner profile using iprof profiler

  • Establishing the limits of your scanner

28 - Projector Calibration

  • The reason why projector calibration is essential

  • The projector calibration process

  • Selecting the correct White Point for scanner calibration

  • Setting the profile

29 - Recommended Calibration Devices

  • What sort of calibrator do I need?

  • DataColor Spyder4Elite Vs X-Rite i1Display Pro

  • i1Display Pro

  • ColorMunki Photo

  • i1Display Pro vs ColorMunki Photo for display calibration

  • ColorChecker mini

  • Summary of printer profiling on ColorMunki Photo

  • i1Publish Pro 2

30 - Display Calibration Software

  • How display calibration software works

  • Eizo ColorNavigator & SpectraView II

  • Troubleshooting tip

  • basICColor Display

31 - Printing Introduction & Paper Types

  • Printing overview

  • Paper types at photo labs - Fuji Crystal Archive

  • Hahnemühle, Innova, Moab, PermaJet, Canson, Tetenal, St Cuthberts Mill and Harman

  • Matte vs Glossy

  • Choosing the right paper

  • Downloadable printer test image

32 - Printing With Photo Labs

  • Common complaints with photo labs

  • When it makes sense asking the labs to correct your colour

  • Main advantages & disadvantages of photo labs for printing

  • Preparing images for printing through photo labs

  • Choosing the correct colour space for photo labs

  • Saving files in the correct format

  • A bit more technical… soft proofing with photo lab paper profiles

  • The photo labs you should avoid

  • Inkjet printing through a photo lab

  • Testing different paper types

  • The practical case for using photo labs

33 - Printing With Inkjet Printers

  • The emergence of inkjet printing in the digital age

  • Dye vs Pigment inks

  • Expected life time of inkjet prints

  • Drying time for inkjet prints

  • OEM vs 3rd party inks

  • The four golden tips for saving money and stress

  • Continuous ink systems

  • The dangers of mixing ink types

  • A big change in inkjet costs is imminent

  • Refillable ink cartridges

34 - Rendering Intents When Printing

  • The purpose of Rendering Intents

  • Soft proofing the effects of Rendering Intents

  • Relative Colorimetric

  • Perceptual

  • Choosing the right Rendering Intent

35 - Soft Proofing Images For Print

  • What is soft proofing?

  • Suitable displays for soft proofing images

  • The limitations of soft proofing

  • The correct soft proof settings

  • Soft proofing as a method to save on material costs

  • Selective layer adjustments for advanced users

  • Obtaining printer profiles for soft proofing

36 - Page Setup

  • An explanation of what Page Setup does

  • Working around layout limitations

37 - The Printer Driver

  • When do we need the printer driver?

  • What happens when we use the printer driver

  • Deciding where to handle the colour management

  • Applying the printer profile

  • Disabling all colour options inside the printer driver

  • Selecting the media type

  • The quality setting

  • Being patient for the print

38 - Print Troubleshooting

  • Most common problems

  • Stop printing until you find the problem

  • Checking that your display is properly calibrated

  • Viewing your print under suitable lighting

  • Avoiding snap decisions when viewing print colours

  • Checking for clogged printer nozzles

  • Checking ink levels

  • The printer profile

  • Quality limitations with certain materials

  • Checking with photo labs

  • Looking again at the original image

39 - Recommended Printers

  • A4, A3 and large format printers

  • Epson 1500W using Claria dye inks

  • Canon Pixma iX6550 using Chromalife100+ dye inks

  • Epson Stylus Pro 4880 using Ultrachrome K3 pigment inks

  • Contract colour proofs in prepress

40 - Preparing Files For Prepress

  • What is prepress?

  • Practical realities and handing over control

  • Display calibration settings for prepress

  • Soft proofing on your display

  • BenQ PG2401PT

  • Remote Director cloud based soft proofing

  • The number rule for working with clients and printers

  • Digital vs Litho

  • Work in RGB

  • The advantages of an RGB workflow

  • The problem colours for CMYK conversion

  • Choosing the right profile

  • The advantage of soft proofing with the correct paper profile

  • ISO Coated V2 and Fogra 39

  • International convergence in CMYK profiling

  • US Web Coated (SWOP) v2

  • Soft proofing with the correct profile while editing

  • Custom proofing options

  • Knowing the paper limitations for maximum highlights

  • Hard proofing

  • The dangers of printing without an hard proof

  • Signing off a contract proof

  • Equipment and materials used for hard proofing

  • Insist on a Fogra control bar

  • Forget hard proofing with your desktop printer

  • RGB or CMYK

  • Tiff or Jpeg and appropriate quality settings

  • Correct file naming

  • Supplying images on CD or DVD

  • Including copyright information

  • Image sharpening

  • Ensuring the files are clear of defects

  • Supplying images in the correct format and colour space

  • File dimensions

  • Resolution settings for different print media from newspaper to stochastic

  • PPI vs DPI

  • Online CMYK conversion

  • Summary of key points

41 - Pantone Matching System

  • Who uses Pantone?

  • How the Pantone Matching System works

  • Pantone Plus Colour Guides

  • The myPantone App for Android and iOS

  • Using Pantone to correct images for specific colours

  • Pantone swatches inside Photoshop

  • Using Pantone to help match tricky colours and black & white in CMYK

42 - Preparing Images For The Web

  • Accepting the unmanaged reality of the internet

  • Choosing the right colour space

  • The best web browser for colour management

  • Fixing colour management inside Firefox

  • The right image format for web usage

  • Resolution for web images

  • Retina resolution web images

  • Save for Web in Photoshop


  • JPEGmini

  • Jpeg quality settings

43 - Colour Management For Video

  • First steps

  • Setting the White Balance & exposure

  • Shooting a clip with a ColorChecker or Grey scale card

  • Advice on working with more than one camera

  • Keep your sensor clean…

  • Post production tweaks to shadow, mid-tones and highlights

44 - Colour Grading In Video

  • A brief explanation of colour grading

  • DaVinci Resolve

  • The media area

  • Using an X-Rite ColorChecker Passport to create a custom profile

  • Creating a colour profile when the light is different in another location

  • Creative enhancements using Color Wheels

45 - Photo Editing Software

  • Introduction

  • Capture One Pro

  • Lightroom

  • Photoshop

  • Photoshop Elements

  • Pixelmator

46 - Capture One Pro

  • Capture One Pro introduction

  • A direct comparison with Lightroom at default settings

  • The Capture One Pro interface

  • Raw file colour space and exporting to smaller colour spaces

  • Capture One Pro ICC profiling

  • The exposure tab

  • Exposure warning preferences

  • High Dynamic Range settings

  • Levels & Curves

  • Color tab White Balance presets

  • Skin tone adjustments

  • Colour temperature adjustment and tint control

  • The Color Balance wheel adjustment for technical and creative enhancement

  • Non destructive black & white adjustments inside Capture One Pro

  • Using the Color Picker tool inside the Color Editor for narrow spectrum adjustments

  • Soft proofing images inside Capture One Pro

  • Rendering Intents inside preferences

  • Processing images

  • Process Recipe options when exporting images

  • Printing in Capture One Pro using a Mac

  • Instructing Capture One Pro to handle the colour management in OS X

  • Soft proofing the image prior to print

  • Choosing the Rendering Intent while previewing the image

  • ColorSync inside the the OS X printer driver

  • Choosing the correct print settings inside the printer driver

  • Printing in Windows

  • Page Setup in Windows

  • Letting Capture One Pro handle the colour management when printing in Windows

  • The Print Settings menu

  • Printing Preferences

  • Disabling colour management inside Windows Printing Preferences using Epson or Canon

47 - Adobe Lightroom

  • Lightroom Introduction

  • Lightroom management of Raw files

  • Colour spaces in Lightroom

  • Exploiting the full data of Raw files in Lightroom

  • Lightroom external editing preferences

  • Presets in the Develop module

  • Activating solo mode in the Develop module

  • Lens calibration

  • Camera calibration

  • Lightroom process versions

  • Basic editing

  • Altering the White Balance

  • Adjusting the exposure

  • The clarity slider

  • Vibrance & Saturation

  • Tone curve adjustments

  • Hue, Saturation & Luminance controls

  • Advanced edits using the adjustment brush

  • Exporting digital files

  • Printing in Lightroom overview

  • Soft proofing in the Develop module

  • Histogram changes when a printer profile is applied

  • Soft proofing using a virtual proof copy

  • Soft proofing to view Rendering Intent differences

  • The Print module

  • Print to Jpeg settings for colour space, resolution, sharpening, size and Rendering Intent

  • Print to Printer

  • File ppi resolution for inkjet printing

  • Print sharpening & media type

  • 16-bit print output

  • Avoiding key errors applying the printer profile

  • Printing with a Mac

  • Page Setup in Lightroom

  • Print Settings…

  • Ensuring ColorSync is enabled inside the printer driver

  • Choosing the correct quality settings and media type

  • Printing in Windows

  • From Page Setup to Properties

  • Turning off colour management inside the Windows printer driver on Canon and Epson

  • Going to print

  • Lightroom summary

48 - Adobe Photoshop

  • Photoshop Introduction

  • Colour management differences between CS6 and Photoshop CC

  • Photoshop Color Settings

  • Color Settings in Photoshop CC and CS6 compared

  • Accessing color settings

  • Choosing a preset in color settings

  • Saving custom presets

  • Pro Photo RGB in color settings

  • Color management policies with color settings

  • Mismatched profiles

  • Use embedded profile

  • Convert to working space

  • Discard embedded profile

  • Setting appropriate colour management policies

  • Ways inside Photoshop to discover the colour space of an image

  • Images with missing profiles

  • Conversion options in color settings

  • Adobe Camera Raw (ACR) engine

  • Adobe Camera Raw preferences

  • Sidecar .xmp files

  • Sharpening preview images only

  • Default image settings

  • The cache size in Adobe Camera Raw

  • DNG preferences with Adobe Camera Raw

  • Jpeg and Tiff handling in Adobe Camera Raw preferences

  • Processing Raw files in Adobe Camera Raw

  • Similarities with Lightroom

  • Lens calibration

  • Camera calibration and process version

  • Adobe Standard vs Custom camera calibration

  • Basic editing in ACR

  • White Balance adjustments

  • Exposure

  • The clarity slider

  • Vibrance & saturation

  • Tone curve adjustments

  • Hue, Saturation and Luminance in ACR

  • Advanced edits in ACR

  • Exporting digital files in ACR

  • Saving for web in Photoshop

  • The file format options when saving for web

  • The quality setting when saving for web

  • Blur and Matte

  • Progressive Jpeg option

  • Optimized file size savings and compatibility

  • Embed color profile

  • Preview options for assessing your optimised web image

  • Metadata when saving for web

  • Resizing images for web usage

  • File resolution when saving for web

  • Assessing the previewed image

  • Printing in Photoshop

  • Photoshop Print Settings

  • Profile risks for Windows users

  • Printer setup

  • Color management within Photoshop Print Settings

  • The source colour space

  • Choosing Photoshop for Color Handling

  • Selecting the printer profile

  • 16-bit printing

  • Normal printing vs hard proofing

  • Rendering Intent choice

  • Black point compensation

  • Previewing Match Print, Colors, Gamut Warning and Show Paper

  • Changing the preview border area

  • Description tool tips

  • Position and size

  • Print Marks & Functions

  • PostScript Options

  • Printing on a Mac

  • Page Setup

  • Color Matching and ColorSync

  • Print Settings or Quality & Media

  • Ensuring the quality settings match the printer profile

  • Checking the ink levels

  • Saving a preset

  • Saving your settings

  • Printing on Windows

  • Print Settings….

  • Printer properties

  • Matching the correct quality settings and media type to the printer profile

  • Disabling colour management inside Printer Properties

  • Patience is a virtue when printing

  • Photoshop Summary

49 - Adobe Photoshop Elements

  • Introduction

  • Colour settings options

  • Raw processing

  • Opening a Raw file

  • Camera calibration & process version

  • Basic Raw adjustments in Adobe Camera Raw (ACR)

  • Setting the White Balance

  • The tint slider

  • Auto vs Default settings

  • Sharpening & noise reduction in ACR

  • Exporting a Raw file

  • Saving for web

  • Quality settings for web usage

  • Optimized & Progressive options

  • Web image resolution

  • Printing in Photoshop Elements

  • Main print settings on Mac OS X

  • Telling Photoshop Elements to handle the colour management in Mac OS X

  • Applying the printer profile and choosing the Rendering Intent

  • ColorSync settings

  • Quality & paper settings

  • Printing in Windows

  • Main print settings in Windows

  • Telling Photoshop Elements to handle the colour management in Windows

  • Printer preferences

  • Disabling colour management in the printer driver on Epson & Canon

  • Summary

50 - Pixelmator

  • Introduction

  • Pixelmator features

  • Colour management through Apple ColorSync

  • Soft proofing CMYK

  • Pixelmator handling of Raw files

  • Converting colour space

  • Image adjustments with layers

  • Pixelmator tutorials

  • Exporting images for web in Pixelmator

  • Printing in Pixelmator with colour management

  • Applying the printer profile

  • Setting the quality and media type

  • Rendering Intents in Pixelmator

51 - Troubleshooting & Colour Corrections

  • Karyl’s law of colour management

  • Lost causes; a pig in lipstick is still a pig…

  • The easy fixes

  • Using curves in Photoshop to colour correct

52 - Final Thoughts

  • You don’t need to be a colour geek

  • Concentrate on one area at a time

  • Colour management is widespread nowadays

  • Final acknowledgement

  • About the author

  • Glossary

whitewall photo lab

“Colour Management Pro offers clear practical advice on preparing your images for photo labs, as well as covering the importance of choosing a lab which has the flexibility to deliver your work as befits a bespoke piece of art. Following these steps will lead to the best possible results.”

Marieke Goethe, WhiteWall (Tipa Award – WhiteWall: Best Photo Lab Worldwide)


“Colour Management Pro is an excellent guide to practical colour management that will help any photographer obtain fantastic results”

Erik Sowder ExpoImaging, manufacturers of the ExpoDisc


“Colour Management Pro explains in simple language how accurate exposure and using a colour meter can really improve the quality of your photography”

Yasuko Kuroi, Product Manager, Sekonic

colour management pro

Colour Management Pro

norton securedfastspring

Available For Immediate Download

US $27

UK £21

EU €23

By clicking Add To Cart, you will continue to the FastSpring checkout, where payment will be taken, and your order fulfilled by FastSpring, our trusted reseller, and Merchant of Record.